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Thread: Diagnoses of reptile diseases by symptoms

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    Diagnoses of reptile diseases by symptoms

    BODY SYSTEM CLINICAL SIGNS DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES
    Gastrointestinal Anorexia Poor captive husbandry (e. g., inappropriate temperature)
    Captive stress (e.g., maladaption, interspecific/ intraspecific aggression)
    Inappropriate food offered
    Food fermentation and colic
    Seasonal (winter) anorexia
    Parasitism (helminth, protozoan)
    Foreign body or impaction
    Ecdysis or dysecdysis (molting, shedding, incomplete shedding)
    Normal gravidity
    Dystocia (difficulty laying eggs or giving birth)
    Stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous lining),
    Esophagitis (inflammation of esophagus),
    Gastritis (lining of stomach inflamed),
    Enteritis (inflammation of small intestines)
    Tongue trauma or infection
    Secondary to other localized (e.g., hepatitis, nephritis) or systemic (e.g., metabolic, septicemia, toxemia) disease
    Constipation Poor captive husbandry (e. g., inappropriate temperature)
    Helminth parasitism
    Dehydration
    Inactivity
    Inappropriate food item (e.g., heavily furred rodent, guinea pigs)
    Cloacolith, fecalith (hardening of feces)
    Cloacitis (Swollen vent)
    Intussusception (one portion of the intestine slides into the next)
    Diarrhea Renal disease in iguanas
    Parasitism (protozoan, helminth)
    Food intolerance (e.g., rotten prey)
    Enteritis, colitis (inflammation of the small intestine / large intestine)
    Intussusception (one portion of the intestine slides into the next)
    Latrogenic (e.g., yeast overgrowth caused by antibiotic use, excess oral fluid therapy)
    Secondary to systemic disease
    Prolapsed cloaca or colon Any cause of increased coelomic pressure/ straining (e.g., dyspnea, constipation, and so forth)
    Cloacitis (Swollen vent), colitis (swollen of large intestine)
    Parasitism
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    Regurgitation Esophagitis (inflammation of esophagus),
    Gastritis (lining of stomach inflamed),
    Parasitism (Cryptosporidium, helminthiasis)
    Inappropriate or rotten food item
    Postprandial handling
    Inadequate environmental temperature or lack of basking area
    Partial or complete gastrointestinal blockage caused by constipation, abscessation, intussusception, parasitcs, retained eggs, neoplasia, and so forth
    BOID inclusion body disease
    Septicemia, toxemia (toxins in the blood)
    Stomatitis Infectious - bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic
    Exposure gingivitis
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    Secondary to esophagitis (inflammation of esophagus)
    Husbandry predispositions to poor immune status (inadequate
    nutrition, hygiene, temperature)
    Dental disease e.g., trauma, abscessation, mandibular/maxillary osteomyelitis -( Progressive bony destruction of jawbone)
    Mucous membranes Pale to black pigmentation - normal coloration
    Yellow - jaundice, biliverdinuria (liver disease)
    Cyanotic - severe cardiovascular or respiratory disease (blue or purple)
    Injected - septicemia, toxemia
    Respiratory Dyspnea (open-mouth breathing) Pneumonia - bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic. (inflammatory condition of the lung)
    Airway obstruction e.g., foreign body, hemorrhage
    Heat stress
    Threat or aggressive display
    Glottal discharge
    Nasal discharge
    Lower respiratory tract disease
    Rhinitis (irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose)
    Stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth)
    Pneumonia (inflammatory condition of the lung)
    Normal salt excretion in some lizards
    Predisposition by hypovitaminosis A (Deficiencies of vitamins A and E, B complex vitamins, and essential fatty acids)
    Musculoskeletal Spinal deformities Fractures (pathologic and traumatic)
    Osteomyelitis and abscessation (bone infection caused by bacteria or other germs)
    Metabolic bone diseases (e.g., secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D3)
    Osteitis deformans (abnormal bone destruction and regrowth) Scoliosis (abnormal curving of the spine)
    Kyphosis (curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding of the back)
    Congenital anomalies (birth defect)
    Neoplasia (the abnormal proliferation of benign or malignant cells)
    Lameness Trauma - fractures, dislocations, soft-tissue injury
    Metabolic bone diseases e.g., secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism
    Degenerative Joint disease age-related
    Osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, cellulitis, abscessation
    Gout-articular (acute arthritis from uric acid)
    Periarticular (tissues surrounding a joint)
    Pseudogout (buildup of salt forms crystals in the joints)
    Urogenital (reproductive organs and the urinary system) Renomegaly
    Prolapse
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    Tubulonephrosis (lack of oxygen to the kidney),
    Nephritis (inflammation of the nephrons in the kidneys), Neoplasia (abnormal proliferation of benign or malignant cells)
    Bladder- urolithiasis (stones)
    Shell gland- egg retention, salpingitis (Pelvic inflammatory disease)
    Hemipenal- trauma or infection
    Infertile mating, laying unfertilized ova lnfertile male or female
    Incompatible pair or grouping
    Unsuccessful copulation
    Inappropriate prebreeding conditioning or poor seasonal stimulation
    lmmature breeding
    Reproductive organ disease
    Stillbirths Poor management of gravid female
    Poor egg incubation, incubator rnalfunction
    Reproductive tract, fetal, or egg disease
    Dystocia Stress- interference from owner, other animals
    Competition for nesting sites
    Obesity
    Inappropriate environment
    lnfertile eggs, dead fetus
    Grossly malformed egg or fetus
    Reproductive tract disease
    Systemic or metabolic disease e.g., secondary nutritional
    hyperparathyroidism
    Circulatory True anemia (low concentration of iron and red blood cells) Regenerative- posthemorrhage (acute blood loss),
    excess blood sampling
    Nonregenerative- neoplasia, chronic disease, starvation
    Iatrogenic (caused by treatment) Lymph contamination of blood during collection
    Excessive parenteral fluid therapy
    Petechiae (a small (1-2mm) red or purple spot on the body) Septicemia, toxemia
    Blood parasites Usually nonpathogenic
    Circulatory RBC mitosis (red blood cells) Replication of circulating RBC is normal
    Cardiomegaly (heart enlarged) Cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease)
    Illusion caused by starvation and cachexia - (wasting syndrome)
    Noncardiac mass
    Ophthalmic (eye) Intraocular (lens) Panophthalmitis - often caused by hematogenous spread
    or penetration (inflammation of all the eye structures or tissues)
    Cataract- age-related, hibernation frost damage
    Retinal degeneration- hibernation frost damage
    Cornea Focal opacity - foreign body, scarring, ulceration,
    Corneal lipidosis - (lipid fat deposits which occur under the surface of the cornea)
    Keratitis (inflamed cornea)
    Spectacle (snakes and some lizards) Subspectacular abscess (snakes, some lizards) -ascending infection via nasolacrimal duct from buccal cavity (stomatitis, respiratory disease)
    Diffuse blue haze to spectacle -imminent normal ecdysis (shedding)
    Wrinkled spectacle -retained spectacle often caused by low humidity, inappropriate temperature
    Palpebral swelling, exophthalmos (bulging of eyes) Ocular venous sinus engorgement
    Trauma - hematoma (localized collection of blood outside the blood vessel)
    Retrobulbar abscess (abscesses that form behind the eye)
    Cellulitis (skin infection caused by bacteria)
    Hypovitaminosis A
    Ocular discharge Conjunctivitis (swelling, inflammation or infection of the membrane lining the eyelids)
    Normal tear production and overflow caused by lack of nasolacrimal duct in some species
    Neorologic and behavioral Lethargy Poor captive husbandry e.g., inappropriate temperature\ poor lighting, inter / intraspecific stress
    Gravidity
    Ecdysis (molting)
    Visceral gout (kidney failure causes a build-up or urates)
    Secondary to any debilitating disease
    Aggression Normal characteristic of certain species
    Acquired at sexual maturity or onset of breeding season
    e.g., Green Iguana
    Exposure to natural sunlight
    Tetany (involuntary contraction of muscles) Hypocalcemia- renal disease or severe secondary nutritional
    hyperparathyruidism - (parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone)
    Convulsions Septicemia, toxemia
    Head trauma
    Meningitis - bacterial, viral fungal, parasitic
    Hepatic encephalopathy (worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood)
    Renal encephalopathy (brain disorder due to renal failure)
    Hyperphosphatemia (electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of phosphate in the blood)
    Intoxication e.g.; organophosphates (phosphoric acid), Ivermectin (antiparasitic medicine)
    Ataxia/ paresis (coordination and strength) Hypoglycemia (blood sugar (glucose) is too low)
    Hypovitaminosis B (excess thiaminase in fish-eating reptiles)
    Secondary to any debilitating disease
    Ivermectin intoxication, especially in chelonia (too much antiparasitic medicine given)
    Head tilt, circling Head trauma
    Ear abcessation
    Hibernation frost damage
    Asymmetrical swimming
    of chelonia
    Unilateral pneumonia (infection in just one lung)
    Unilateral soft-tissue mass
    Unilateral gas production e.ˇ: gastric bloat
    Integument and
    shell (skin etc.)
    Dysecdysis
    (Incomplete shed)
    Parasites - mites, ticks, flies
    Inappropriate temperature and humidity
    Secondary to generalized debilitation, starvation
    Beak and nails Overgrowth caused by lack of exercise and soft, easily prehended food material
    Trauma
    Shell Soft shell- normal in particular species because of secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism, shell infection
    Deformities- fractures, congenital, metabolic bone diseases,
    nutritional factors
    Scute loss - trauma, infection, systemic disease
    Skin trauma Bites from cage mates, prey items
    Damage from poorly designed vivaria e.g., rostral abrasions caused by repeated escape attempts
    Abscesse
    Dermatitis
    Subcutaneous abscesses common in most species
    Bacterial - most common
    Fungal - common secondary to prolonged antibiotic use and in high-humidity environments
    Viral e.g.; papillomavirus of green wall lizards, grey-patch disease of Green Sea turtles
    Hypovitaminosis A (Vitamin A deficiency)
    Hypervitaminosis A (too much vitamin A)
    Ectoparasites - mites, ticks, flies
    Helminths - transcutaneous hookworm infection, subcutaneous parasitic cysts
    Burns Chemical - after hypochlorite use
    Thermal - from unscreened heaters
    Blister disease Noninfectious dermatitis caused by high humidity and mild thermal insult, leading to subcutaneous vesicle formation
    Color Mutant color selection
    Normal chameleons
    Seasonal (breeding) changes
    Dull coloration caused by systemic or metabolic disease
    Dermatitis, scars, and so forth
    Miscellaneous Weight loss Inadequate food intake
    Inadequate digestion caused by poor husbandry especially inappropriate temperature or intestinal disease
    Submandibular or cephalic swelling Cellulitis - acute bacterial infection
    Hemorrhage - trauma, (escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel)
    Aneurysm
    (abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery)
    Gross coelomic swelling
    Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity) Hypoproteinemia (Abnormally low levels of total protein in the blood)
    Severe hepatopathy (A disease or disorder of the liver)
    Nephropathy (damage to or disease of a kidney)
    Coelomitis (inflammation of the abdomen from internally ovulating)
    Cardiac disease
    Gravid
    Abscess
    Granuloma (small area of inflammation due to tissue injury)
    Neoplasia (the abnormal proliferation of benign or malignant cells)
    Gastric hypertrophy in snakes Caused by Cryptosporidium (parasitic disease)
    Pronounced organ enlargement e.g., hepatomegaly -(enlarged liver), intestinal obstipation, enlarged fat bodies and obesity
    Book: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Douglas R. Mader, MS, DVM, DABVP Diplomate, American Board of Veterinary Practitioners (CA) Fellow, Royal Society of Medicine Marathon Veterinary Hospital Marathon, Flori.da SAUNDERS. With 72 Contributing Authors

    All words in brackets are explanations of the medical term which I personally added. If none was given then it means the explanation of the medical term lead to more medical terms which needed explaining.
    Last edited by wildheart; 23-01-13 at 15:28. Reason: .
    I am Afrikaans speaking, excuse my English.

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  2. The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to wildheart For This Useful Post:: irinas (22-01-13),lucysfriend (22-01-13),Pattarapong Jantana (27-10-14),SqueakZilla (22-01-13)
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    Photo Examples of diseases:

    A Boa Constrictor with with severe bacterial dermatitis and skin necrosis from a burn from an unscreened heater.

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    Blister disease caused by constant dampness within the vivarium.
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    Complete lack of righting reflexes in Boa constrictor with boid inclusion body disease (IBD).
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    Dysecdysis in a Boa constrictor.
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    Feces, urates, and urine that are voided during physical examination should be retained for laboratory investigations. A, Normal feces, urates, and urine from a snaked. B, Diarrhea and abnormal green urates from a tortoise with severe liver disease.
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    Mycotic dermatitis in a Royal or Ball Python.
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    A submandibular skin laceration caused by another python. Such injuries are common when two snakes strike at the same prey item.
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    A thermal burn on the ventrum of a Kingsnake (Lampropeltis sp.) caused by a poorly controlled heat mat.
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    Poor neurologic function in a Gartersnake (Thamnophis sp.) with thiamine deficiency.
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    A focal wound in a Cuban Boa (Epicrates angulifer) that involves the skin, subcutis, and underlying musculature.
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    Subcutaneous hemorrhages can be a sign of generalized infection or toxemia in snakes.
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    The dorsal head section of slough from a python. Note the two spectacles (arrows).
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    Pronounced skin ridges (poverty lines) in a cachexic snake.
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    Retained spectacle in a Royal or Ball Python (Python regius).
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    Last edited by wildheart; 25-01-13 at 16:12. Reason: added captions for translation purposes.
    I am Afrikaans speaking, excuse my English.

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    Subspecatacular abscess in a Burmese Python (Python m. bivittatus).
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    Severe bacterial stomatitis in a Boa Constrictor.
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    Severe buccal erythema and hemorrhages associated with viral stomatitis in a Boa constrictor.
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    Dyspnea and open-mouth breathing in a Royal or Ball Python (Python regius) with severe pneumonia.
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    Submandibular bacterial cellulitis in a Burmese Python (Python m. bivittatus).
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    Mandibular swelling from a lymphosarcoma in a Burmese Python (Python m. bivittatus.)
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    Intracoelomic mass in a Kingsnake. The mass, located approximately 85% from snout-vent, was a renal carcinoma.
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    Cloacocolonic prolapse in a Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis).
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    Propioceptive (placement) deficit in a Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) with localized spinal cord compression at T4 Similar presentations can occur with limb fractures.
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    Hirstiella mites are commonly found around are folds in iguanas. Inset, Microscopic appearance of the mite.
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    Moribund Green Iguana (Iguana iguana). Depression is most often associated with severe sepsis or metabolic derangements.
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    Right-sided head tilt in a Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) after head trauma.
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    Infected bite wound in a female Berber Skink after a mating encounter with an aggressive male.
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    Ticks located along the ventral tail base of an imported Savannah Monitor (Varanus exanthematicus).
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    Severe burns to much of the dorsal surface of a Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) from an overly powerful radiant heat source within its enclosure.
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    Last edited by wildheart; 25-01-13 at 16:26. Reason: added captions for translation purposes.
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    Severe burns to the ventrum of a juvenile Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) that was maintained in a vivarium with poorly controlled heat mat inside the enclosure.
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    Abnormal head conformations in Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). A, Bilateral submandibular swelling associated with secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism. B, Softening and compressibility of the maxilla associated with secondary renal hyperparathyroidism. C, Acquired agnathia caused by secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism and continual forces of glossopharyngeal musculature on the softening mandible. D, Bilateral submandibular fibromas or osteomas. Biopsies of these pronounced hard swellings indicate that they are not associated with classic secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism, although their etiology remains unclear.
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    Gently pulling down on the dewlap of a Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) to permit examination of the oral cavity. Note the normal pigmentation at the end of the tongue and the glottis at the base of the tongue.
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    Oral abnormalities in Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana ). A, Pharyngeal edema from chronic renal disease. B, lntraoral appearance of bilateral fibroma /osteoma as they impinge within the dorsal pharynx. C, Oral abscess.
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    Lizard eye . A, Normal spectacled (no lids) eye of a gecko. B, Acute swelling associated with trauma and engorgement of retrobulbar venous plexus in a Yemen Chameleon. C, Blepharospasm and conjunctivitis in a Bearded Dragon associated with corneal ulceration from sand in the eye. D, Gross distention of the eye in a Green Iguana from panophthalmitis and retrobulbar
    abscessation.
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    Coelomic distension in this Green Iguana may be from ascites, reproductive activity, organomegaly, neoplasia, or abscess.
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    Rostral abrasions are common in many lizards. like this Asian water Dragon that fail to recognize and avoid glass barriers.
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    Firm swelling of the hindlimb in a Green Iguana associated with secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism.
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    A Green Iguana emaciated from chronic real disease.
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    Spinal fracture in a Green Iguana predisposed by secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism.
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    Enlarged kidney (arrow) in a Green Iguana.
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    Swelling of the antebrachium in a Green iguana from localized trauma, abscessation (arrow), and subsequent cellulitis.
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    Sibling Bearded dragons from the same enclosure. Despite the lack of overt aggression, the sibling on right was dominant over the other with regard to food and basking resources and grew much faster.
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    Last edited by wildheart; 25-01-13 at 16:54. Reason: added captions for translation
    I am Afrikaans speaking, excuse my English.

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    Cloacal prolapse in a Green Iguana with chronic renal disease and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism.
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    Hemipenal prolapse in a gecko.
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    Aural abscess in a Spotted turtle.
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    Mycotic dermatitis and cutaneous ulceration along the ventrolateral border of the mandible in a Red-eared Slider.
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    Overgrown beak of a Box turtle.
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    Oral examination of a Greek Tortoise reveals caseous plaque attached to the hard palate.
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    Protrusion of the nictitating membrane in a Hermann's tortoise with bacterial conjuctivitis.
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    Severe limb trauma in a tortoise after a fox attack.
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    Dyspnea and open-mouth breathing in a tortoise with severe pneumonia.
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    A, Normal forelimb of a tortoise. B, Grossly enlarged forelimb of a tortoise from osteomyelitis.
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    Skin sloughing and erythema associated with latrogenic hypervitaminosis A in a tortoise.
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    Excessive growth in this juvenile tortoise is indicated by a broad growth line in the shell.
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    Fracture of the carapace in a tortoise after a dog attack.
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    The deformed shell of a juvenile Greek tortoise from secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism.
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    Sloughing of keratin scutes to reveal the underlying carapacial bones in a tortoise that sustained severe burns in a fire.
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    Last edited by wildheart; 25-01-13 at 17:10. Reason: added captions for translation
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    Hemorrhage and infection between the scutes and the shell of a tortoise. The focal wound (arrow) was the presumed portal of entry.
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    Generalized plastron infection with osteomyelitis in a tortoise that was maintained in unhygienic conditions on an inappropriate heat mat.
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    Phallic prolapse in a Testudo toroise.
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    Prolapse of the cloaca (c) and oviduct (o) in a Testudo tortoise that had been straining and had previously passed several eggs.
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    Shed skin from a snake with severe mite infestation and self-inflicted wounds from intense pruritus . One of these lesions can be appreciated from abnormal slough (arrow). Inset, Common snake mite, recovered from shed skin.
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    Facial abscess of a Plumed Basilisk. Microbiologic cultures are frequent more rewarding when collected from the peripheral pyogenic capsule rather than from the caseous debris.
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    Scraping a dry skin lesion, such as this mycotic dermatitis of a tortoise, produces material for cytologic and microbiologic investigations.
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    Radiograth of a bearded dragon shows placement of a lung lavage cathetor into the right lung. Note the consolidation and reduction of the right lung field indicating possible disease.
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    Endoscopic view of a Royal or Ball Python with granulomatous pneumonia (arrow). The diagnoses of pulmonary mycobacteriosis was made after a biopsy as lung lavage proved unrewarding.
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    Endoscopic examination and biopsy of the chelonian liver. A, Normal liver in a Greek tortoise shows mulifocal pigmentation areas of a melanomacrophage aggregation. B, Diffusely pale liver in a male Hermann's tortoise from hepatic lipidosis. C, Pale area in the liver of a Leopard tortoise from focal bacterial hepatitis (arrow). D. Liver biopsy of a juvenile Loggerhead seaturtle.
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    Removal of a hemipenal plug from a mature male Green Iguana.
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    Last edited by wildheart; 26-01-13 at 12:14. Reason: added captions for translation
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    Retained ringlets of old skin can constrict the digits and result in avascular necrosis and sloughing of the digits and toenails. This is a common sequela of improper husbandry, specifically cool temperatures and low humidity.
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    Screen mesh can be hazardous to arboreal reptiles. The toenails become caught in the screen and are injured. Infections around the nail bed can lead to loss of toes, abscesses and potentially systemic infections.
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    This Green Iguana was seen for a mass on the toe that did not respond to antimicrobial therapy. Eventually the mass was biopsied. The resulting histopathologic analysis revealed a sarcoma.
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    This Shingle-backed Skin was seen with an infected foot that had sloughed all the digits. Impressions smears of the mass revealed acid-fast organisms suggestive of mycobacteria. Instead of euthanasia the limb was amputated.
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    This Desert tortoise was intentionally 'short-clipped' to collect a blood sample. This technique is considered inhumane and should not be used as a method of blood collection.
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    Small lacerations between the toes are easily infected if the environment is not maintained in a hygienic state. The cuts on this Box turtle were caused by the sharp edges of the 'grass' stems of the artificial turf carpet.
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    A, A bilobed abscess is seen on the carpus and first digit of this green Iguana (Iguana iguana). Notethe similarity to the sarcoma noted in the toe of the Iguana in Figure 51-3. B, Surgical debulking of the abscesses are often necessary to promote healing. This patient had a full recovery after a course of antibiotics and wound care.
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    Regardless of the outward appearance of a patient, prognosis is usually good. One or two shed cycles may be necessary for all old skin to come off and for underlying scales to return to normal. Dysecdysis is not a disease, it is a symptom of other problems; systemic disease, improper husbandry and ectoparasites are possible causes.
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    This D'Albert's Python is having problems shedding. No heavy or rigid objects that can be used to
    assist with removing old skin are found in the cage. Note the abraded rostrum from constant rubbing on the walls and paper substrate.


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    Retained skin needs to be carefully removed. Skin left in place can act as a rudus for infection, as bacteria and fungus can easily accumulate under old slough.
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    This green Iguana (Iguana iguana) has severe mite infestahon. Mites, combined with secondary pyoderma, can do harm to the skin and affect the shed.
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    This Burmese Python (Python molurus bivitatlus) had a severe corneal injury. In an attempt to remove what was thought to be a retained spectacle, the cornea was damaged.
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    This python was treated with an aminoglycoside for infectious stomatitis. The veterinarian noticed the whitish lesions in the gingiva. Thinking it was a progression of the infectious stomatitis, he increased the dose. In actuality, the lesions were not infectious in origin but were depositions of gouty tophi. The snake died of extensive visceral gout.
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    A and B, Blepharedema is a classic sign of vitamin A deficiency. C, In severe cases, caseous exudate
    may be found under the palpebrum.
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    Last edited by wildheart; 26-01-13 at 12:43. Reason: added captions for translation
    I am Afrikaans speaking, excuse my English.

    QUALITY OF LIFE IS JUST AS IMPORTANT AS GOOD HEALTH.
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    Mandibular deformities that result from nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD) usually never completely resolve. Adult animals with chronic ptyalism as a result of subtle malocclusions that resulted from NMBD while a juvenile are not uncommon. The red arrows point to impressions left on the labium from the opposing dental arcade.
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    Epidermal sloughing in a Box turtle from hypervitaminosis A.
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    A, Juvenile Burmese Python presented with acute onset of neorologic signs, including loss of the righting reflex and disorientation. B, The same snake with dilated pupils.
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    Strabismus can e a sign of either central nervous system or cranial nerve damage.
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    Head tilts, star gazing and other neurologic disorders as seen here in this Green Tree Python can be associated with any number of diseases such as bacterial, viral, and parasitic meningitis.
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    This Gartersnake was unable to right itself. These neorologic symptoms are commonly seen in boids with viral encephalitis. This patient had been fed frozen fish and had a thiamin deficiency. When supplemental thiamin was administered the patient had a full recovery.
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    This Burmese Python exhibited signs of acute OPMV infection, including respiratory compromise and evidence of neorologic involvement. When placed on its back it was unable to right itself.
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    A, This Ball Python is open-mouth breathing. With rare exceptions, this is a sign of severe pathology in snakes. Lizards, crocodilians and turtles may thermoregulate with an open mouth. B, This Cyclura had a large ovarian abscess compromising lung volume.
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    Snakes with respiratory disease may 'posrture' in an attempt to facilitate breathing. Resting in a vertical position prevents exudate from blocking the airway.
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    A nematode in the accessory lung lobe (at tip of forceps) in a chameleon. Small numbers of lung parasites do not usually cause a problem. However, in stressed or immunocompromised patients, parasites can lead to inflammation and pneumonia.
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    This Snapping Turtle had been kept without supplemental heat for 9 years, and had peeling scutes, discharge from the edges of scutes, and foul odor for 2 year·. Most of the scutes were loose and easily removed. the shell was aggressively debrided down to healthy tissue. Copious amounts of necrotic tissue, necrotic bone and caseous debris were removed

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    A, Rat bite in a Ball Python, According to the owner this bite had occurred just 1 week prior to presentation. Note theextensive spinal involvement.
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    Proliferative segmented spondylosis.
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    Last edited by wildheart; 26-01-13 at 12:55. Reason: added captions for translation
    I am Afrikaans speaking, excuse my English.

    QUALITY OF LIFE IS JUST AS IMPORTANT AS GOOD HEALTH.
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  11. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to wildheart For This Useful Post:: dimzel (24-01-13),Pattarapong Jantana (27-10-14)

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